Gallipoli - The Making of a Nation

The Landing

At Gallipoli at 4:30am on April 25th, 1915, 19th century military tactics met 20th century weapons in battle with horrendous results.

The ANZAC plan was simple enough - a covering force of 4,000 ANZAC troops (3rd Brigade) would take three landmarks - The Bald Hill called Chanuk Bair to the north, Scrubby Knoll to the east and Gaba Tepe to the south. With these positions secured, the main body would advance across the peninsula and capture a hill known as Mal Tepe and later the town of Maidos. This plan was discarded when the troops were put ashore one mile to the north of the intended landing site, later known as ANZAC Cove.

The first Australians to land were 3rd Brigade, consisting of 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th Battalions. The objectives were for the 9th to clear Gaba Tepe and head for Anderson Knoll on the third ridge. The 10th would land in the center, capture the Turkish guns on 400 plateau, then cross Legge Valley and occupy Scrubby Knoll on the third ridge. The 11th would land on the left and seize Chunuk Bair at the top of the third ridge. The 12th would be in reserve.

By 2:00pm of that day in every measure, the plan had failed.

The survivors would never again confuse war with adventure.

Lieutenant Colonel Mustafa Kemal, in command of the Turkish forces realised he had to stop the ANZAC force taking Chanuk Bair. He demanded great sacrifices from his men as his famous order of April 25th read "I do not order you to attack; I order you to die. In the time which passes until we die, other troops and commanders can take our place". Kemal knew he must hold the high ground and drive the invaders back into the sea.

Within 24 hours the invasion had become a siege which would last eight and a half months and ultimately fail.

Approximately 747 Australians died on the first day.

Anzac Cove